کتاب کم عمق ها

اثر نیکلاس کار از انتشارات مازیار - مترجم: امیر سپهرام-بهترین کتاب های روانشناسی

این کتاب ترجمه‌ای است از اثر زیر:
The Shallows, What the Internet is doing to our brains, 2012, by Nicholas Carr

بخش‌هایی خلاصه شده از متن کم‌عمق‌ها:

... در مغز کتاب‌خوانان ناحیه‌هایی اختصاصی برای رمزگشایی سریع متن ایجاد می‌شود. این نواحی «چنان سیم‌بندی شده‌اند که نماینده اطلاعات بصری، آواشناختی و دستور زبانی مهم باشند و بتوانند این اطلاعات را با سرعت برق‌آسایی بازیابی کنند.» برای مثال در قشر بینایی مغز «کلاژی واقعی» از تشکل‌های نورونی‌ای تشکیل می‌شود که وظیفه‌‌شان این است که در کسری از میلی‌ثانیه «تصویر بصری حروف، الگوی حروف و کلمات» را شناسایی کنند. مغز، با زبردست‌تر شدن در رمزگشایی متن و تبدیل آن از یک فعالیت حل مساله طاقت‌فرسا به فرآیندی که در اساس خودکار انجام می‌شود، می‌تواند منابع بیشتری را به تفسیر معنا اختصاص بدهد. در نتیجه، آن چه امروزه مطالعه عمیق (ژرف‌خوانی) می‌خوانیم ممکن می‌شود. ...

... جیکوب نیلسن، در سال ۲۰۰۶، دست به آزمایشی بر روی ردگیری چشم وب‌گردان زد. او از ۲۳۲ نفر خواست که دوربین کوچکی را سرشان کنند. کار این دوربین تعقیب حرکات چشم افراد در زمان مطالعه صفحات متن بود. وی دریافت که تقریبا هیچ یک از شرکت‌کنندگان متن برخط را به صورت سنتیِ خط‌به‌خط - مثل مطالعه یک صفحه از کتاب‌ - نمی‌خواندند. بیشترشان، انگار به سرعت سرشیر متن را می‌گرفتند و چشم‌شان با الگویی تا حدودی شبیه به حرف F روی صفحه حرکت می‌کرد. در آغاز، سر تا ته دو سه خط اول را از نظر می‌گذراندند، بعد چشم‌شان کمی پایین می‌آمد و چند خط دیگر را تقریبا تا نصف می‌خواندند. سپس می‌گذاشتند که چشم‌شان به سرعت به سمت چپ پایین صفحه بلغزد. ...

... در بخشی از یک مطالعه پنج‌ساله، یک تیم تحقیقاتی به بررسی سوابق روی کامپیوترها پرداختند که رفتار بازدیدکنندگان از دو وب‌سایت تحقیقاتی محبوب را مستند می‌کرد. هر دو سایت دسترسی به مقالات نشریات و کتاب‌های الکترونیکی را برای کاربران فراهم می‌کردند. محققان دریافتند که کاربران این وب‌سایت‌ها مشخصا رفتاری به صورت یک فعالیت سطحی‌خوانی از خود نشان می‌دهند؛ به طوری که از یک منبع به دیگری می‌جهند و به ندرت به منبعی که قبلا دیده‌ بودند، برمی‌گردند. اغلب، یک یا دو صفحه از مطلبی را می‌خوانند و بعد بیرون می‌پرند و سراغ منبع دیگری می‌روند. ...

... حال زمان پرسش حیاتی فرا رسیده است: دانش، در مورد تاثیر واقعی‌ای که استفاده از اینترنت بر شیوه کارکرد ذهن ما می‌گذارد، چه حرفی برای گفتن دارد؟ شکی نیست که این سوال موضوع پژوهش‌های بسیاری در سال‌های آینده خواهد بود. همین الان هم چیزهای زیادی می‌دانیم یا می‌توانیم حدس بزنیم. اما، اخبار نگران کننده‌تر از آنی است که گمان می‌کرده‌ام. ده‌ها پژوهش صورت‌گرفته توسط روان‌شناسان، عصب‌زیست‌شناسان، مدرسان و طراحان وب، همگی به نتیجه مشابهی رسیده‌اند: وقتی برخط می‌شویم، وارد محیطی شده‌ایم که تشویق به مطالعه سرسری، تفکر عجولانه و بی‌حواس و یادگیری سطحی می‌کند. هر چند، در گشت‌وگذار در اینترنت هم می‌توان ژرف‌خوانی کرد، همان طور که کتاب را هم می‌توان سطحی خواند، اما، ژرف‌اندیشی شیوه‌ای نیست که این فناوری کسی را به آن ترغیب کند. ...


خرید کتاب کم عمق ها
جستجوی کتاب کم عمق ها در گودریدز

معرفی کتاب کم عمق ها از نگاه کاربران
نویسنده در این کتاب توضیح می‌دهد که چگونه استفاده‌ی زیاد از اینترنت باعث می‌شود تمرکز ما کمتر شود و سیستم مغزی ما به سمت سطحی شدن تغییر کند.
کتاب جذاب و تاثیرگذاری بود. از خواندنش لذت بردم و البته‌ کمی هم نگرانِ اینکه آیا من هم دچار این عدم تمرکز و سطحی بودن، نشده‌ام؟!
خواندش را به شدت توصیه می‌کنم
http://choobalef.blog.ir/1394/10/05/%...

مشاهده لینک اصلی
@روش مطالعه ی ما چگونه تغییر می کند؟روش نگارش ما چطور؟ روش تفکرمان؟ این ها سوالاتی است که هم باید از خودمان بپرسیم و هم از کودکان مان.@
ده فصل این کتاب برای پاسخ دادن به این پرسش ها نوشته شده اند. مجموعه ای خواندنی از نتایج تعداد زیادی مقاله ی زیست شناسی و تاریخی و فناوری های روز.
الهام بخش نیکاس کار کتاب شناخت رسانه ی مک لوهان است. جایی که در آن مک لوهان می گوید رسانه ها فقط ناقل اطلاعات نیستند. بلکه آن ها مدل فکر کردن مغز ما را هم تغییر می دهند. او مجموعه ای از مقاله های زیست شناسی را برایت ردیف می کند تا ثابت کند که مغز آدمیزاد همیشه در حال تغییر است. انعطاف پذیر است. بعد تاثیر اختراعات بشری بر نحوه ی کارکرد مغز را واشکافی می کند. تاثیری که نقشه بر مغز انسان و نحوه ی تفکرش گذاشت. تاثیری که ساعت بر آن گذاشت. تاثیر اختراع حروف الفبا و بعدها کتاب بر مغز انسان. و بعد اختراع ماشین چاپ تا که می رسد به اینترنت و یکی یکی ویژگی هایش را تشریح می کند و بر اساس مقاله های پرتعدادی تاثیر هر یک از ویژگی های اینترنت بر مغز آدمی را شرح می دهد.
آوردگاه کتاب مقابله ی کتاب و صفحات وب است.
جایی که نیکلاس کار هم پوشانی های اینترنت و کتاب و تلاش های اینترنت برای حل کردن کتاب در خودش را روایت می کند.
دارم کلی روایت می کنم. از قصد هم خلاصه ی دقیق کتاب را ارائه نمی دهم. خیلی دلم می خواهد چند تا تکه از کتاب را جدا کنم و بخش بخش توی اینترنت رونویسی کنم. ولی این دقیقا همان چیزی است که نیکلاس کار در کتابش به تشریح روایت کرده است... بدترین ویژگی این کار از بین بردن پیوستگی روایت خطی کتاب است...
از آن کتاب هاست که مخ آدم را کار می گیرد و وامی دارد به این که دارد چه کار می کند @توجه@ کند...

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Beware: when you hit the last page of this fascinating, bleak, helpless narrative -- one that addresses your own brain as a stunted, wasting bundle of unmotivated neurons -- youll either want to retreat to a shared scholarly past, pointing at physical pages with a yad, or youll just embrace the terrifying idiocracy-pastebin Second Dark Age thats sweeping over us. Hell, the author himself interrupts his argument on occasion to underscore his own troubles with concentration, even devoting a chapter to how he managed to finish writing this book.

But there are bright spots -- his concise history of reading (of silent reading) will hustle your brainstem and reinstate for you the one most awesome thing we take for granted. Similarly, later in the narrative he kinda bashes Google as one of the most sinister organizations ever with their 300-year plan to become a corporate repository of all information everywhere. But of course, @information@ just means @data@ to Google, and thus all books will be churned into a blender of searchable text: @The great library that Google is rushing to create shouldnt be confused with the libraries weve known up until now. Its not a library of books. Its a library of snippets.@ Love the bashing, but as with everything in this book, Googles book-scanning enterprise seems inevitable, unstoppable.

Which is why things are so bleak -- nowhere does Carr offer a suggestion that maybe this downward trajectory could reverse itself, that perhaps the @reading class@ will become admired and emulated, turning people away from their Blackberries and Kindles, and back into the cracked spine of a physical book. And he really doesnt address the scarier fact: what are the brains of the new generation? Hes largely writing to his peer cohorts -- those of us whose lives began analog and turned digital -- telling us sad, sympathetic tales of how we dont remember facts or quotes, how we can no longer devote deep attention to a book, how were constantly distracted and thereby made dumber. But what about the n00bs who are born in 2011 and may never know the pleasure of sitting silently for hours with a sublime, brain-inflaming book? He doesnt go there, because really, he cant... nobody knows what the new brains will do.

Early in his narrative, Carr does bump up against an occasional dialectic -- for example with written literature we lost our magnificent oral culture, but we gained larger stores of memory and logic and a stronger insistence on evidence and facts to guide our daily lives. However, with all were losing now -- memory, attention, perhaps even the future of literature, poetry, history -- he offers very little in compensation, just some gains in reflexes and hand-eye coordination: lower functions. His own brain is talking back like HAL, and I can hear mine doing it too: Daisy, Daisy, give me your answer do. Im half crazy all for the love of you. It wont be a stylish marriage, I cant afford a carriage. But youll look sweet upon the seat of a bicycle built for two.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
I enjoyed this look at how the internet is affecting our minds. Carrs research covers everything from the history of reading and printing to IQ scores and research in neuroscience.

This is a good summation of what Carr learned:


Dozens of studies by psychologists, neurobiologists, educators, and Web designers point to the same conclusion: when we go online, we enter an environment that promotes cursory reading, hurried and distracted thinking, and superficial learning. Its possible to think deeply while surfing the Net, just as its possible to think shallowly while reading a book, but thats not the type of thinking the technology encourages and rewards.


I was familiar with Carrs earlier article in The Atlantic called @Is Google Making Us Stupid?@ but decided to finally read his whole book to better understand how we got these shorter attention spans and shallow thought processes. This book actually inspired me to delete apps from my phone in an effort to use the device less, and to focus more on long-form reading. I dont want to lose the power of deep thought. Resist the shallows!

Recommend for those who like pop psychology and nonfiction that includes first-person narration.

Favorite Passage
@Over the last few years Ive had an uncomfortable sense that someone, or something, has been tinkering with my brain, remapping the neural circuitry, reprogramming the memory. My mind isnt going — so far as I can tell — but its changing. Im not thinking the way I used to think. I feel it most strongly when Im reading. I used to find it easy to immerse myself in a book or a lengthy article. My mind would get caught up in the twists of the narrative or turns of the argument, and Id spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose. Thats rarely the case anymore. Now my concentration starts to drift after a page or two. I get fidgety, lose the thread, and begin looking for something else to do. I feel like Im always dragging my wayward brain back to the text. The deep reading that used to come naturally has become a struggle.@


مشاهده لینک اصلی
Hello, my name is Marc Kozak, and Im a scientist.

Thank you for agreeing to complete this brief questionnaire regarding your internet habits. I can assure you that all data received in this study will be kept completely private. Your results will be combined with the others, and I will use that data to write a very profound article that will win me multiple prizes and perhaps even get a woman to talk to me. Your assistance is invaluable. Thank you for your time, and please enjoy the $5 iTunes gift card as our thanks for your participation. (Note: the iTunes gift card in no way implies that using the internet to access iTunes is preferable to non-digital music or that the internet is even safe in general.)

Question 1: How much time would you say you spend on the internet per day (including on your phone)?
A. 0 - 0.5 hours
B. 0.5 - 24 hours

Hmm, its just as I suspected. People are using the internet at a very high rate on a daily basis. Fascinating.

Question 2: What is your opinion of printed reading materials (ie what are commonly referred to as @books@)?
A. I think I heard of those once
B. Books are for nerds and you better not be calling me a nerd
C. I dont feel comfortable smashing large spiders with my eReader

So its true: books, which are the pinnacle of human achievement, are no longer in style compared to more digital mediums. Amazing.

Question 3: You see a group of teenagers.
A. Get off my lawn
B. Theyre probably high on that marijuana
C. What is with the rap music?
D. So these gays can get married now, huh?

Its as I feared. I am absolutely convinced that for the first time ever, things that young people do are wildly inferior to what us adults grew up with.

Question 4: Which of these scenarios is the most likely, should people continue to use the internet at a high rate?
A. Everyone will be drooling idiots and society will collapse

B. People will have to burn provocative eReaders instead of books, and the resulting toxic fumes will kill us all

C. Well probably just get on with things in a different manner.

D. I dont feel comfortable answering this question, because I believe the administer of this survey is a robot who was sent here to learn my human ways.

Well this is ridiculous, Im clearly not a robot. Or have I been programmed to think Im not a robot? Thats exactly what someone who wouldve programmed a robot to think like a human wouldve done. And I dont like to be caught in the rain. Oh God...

The following exercise will test your ability to concentrate and experience deep learning. Please read the following passage carefully:

The Tax Division’s criminal enforcement mission is to protect the integrity of the federal income tax system by prosecuting criminals who defraud the Internal Revenue Service. In pursuit of this mission, Tax Division prosecutors work cooperatively with the Internal Revenue Service, the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA),1 and United States Attorneys to investigate alleged tax crimes, to identify appropriate charges, to secure convictions, and to defend them on appeal. Tax Division prosecutors work cooperatively with Assistant United States Attorneys, Internal Revenue Service agents and attorneys, and TIGTA agents to seek the most effective, efficient, and expeditious means to punish criminals who obstruct or defraud the Internal Revenue Service and to deter future violations. The exercise of prosecutorial discretion in criminal tax cases should be guided by the standards applicable to all criminal prosecutions handled by the Department of Justice. See United States Attorneys’ Manual (USAM), § 9-27.000, et seq. The Tax Division therefore should authorize prosecution for the most serious readily provable offense. See USAM, § 9-27.300. The Tax Division should authorize additional charges if they are necessary to ensure that the information or indictment reflects the nature and extent of the defendant’s criminal conduct and to provide the basis for an appropriate sentence or if they will significantly enhance the strength of the governments case against the defendant or a codefendant. See id. § 9-27.320. Charging decisions should reflect strategic prosecutorial judgments about how best to ensure that the defendant will be convicted and held accountable for his entire course of criminal conduct, regardless of whether the appropriate charges are suggested by the investigating agency. The federal criminal tax enforcement program is designed to protect the public interest in preserving the integrity of this Nations self-assessment tax system through vigorous and uniform enforcement of the internal revenue laws. USAM, § 6-4.010. Criminal tax prosecutions serve to punish the violator and promote respect for the tax laws. Because there are insufficient resources to prosecute all violations, deterring others from violating the tax laws is a primary consideration. The Assistant Attorney General for the Tax Division of the United States Department of Justice supervises the federal criminal tax enforcement program. 28 C.F.R. § 0.70. The Division is responsible for supervising all criminal proceedings arising under and related to the internal revenue laws, with certain limited exceptions. Tax Division jurisdiction under 28 C.F.R. § 0.70(b) depends on the nature of the underlying conduct rather than the particular criminal statute used to prosecute the defendant. In addition to Title 26 tax crimes, the Tax Division has authority over prosecutions for other crimes when they relate to tax offenses. Non-Title 26 statutes used to prosecute tax crimes include 18 U.S.C. § 287 (false claims)), 18 U.S.C. §§ 286, 371 (conspiracy to defraud the United States), 18 U.S.C. § 1001 (fraud and false statements in matters within the jurisdiction of a government agency), 18 U.S.C. §§ 1341-1344 (mail, wire, and bank fraud, when the mailing, wiring, or representation charged is used to promote or facilitate any criminal violation arising under the internal revenue laws, either as substantive offenses or as the predicate acts for RICO or specified unlawful activities for money laundering offenses), 18 U.S.C. §§ 1501-1511 (obstruction of justice and obstruction of a criminal investigation), 18 U.S.C. §§ 1621-22 (perjury and subornation of perjury), and 18 U.S.C. § 1623 (false declarations before a grand jury or court). 28 C.F.R. §§ 0.70, 0.179.


Question 5: Did you even read all of that?
A. No

Ive done it!!!! The internet clearly has affected the brains ability to concentrate! Nobel Prize and maybe holding hands with a woman, here I come!

مشاهده لینک اصلی
In many ways I think this doesn’t have much more to say than Technopoly and that Technopoly has the advantage of saying what needs to be said better, quicker and more entertainingly. I was trying to work out what it was about this that annoyed me and the problem is that this is a very self-conscious book, one that feels it needs to justify itself far too much. And after a while that became very tedious.

He makes a nice division between instrumentalists and determinists – basically, instrumentalists are those who say that the tools we use play no more role in our lives than whatever role they play as tools, and determinists who say that once we have shaped our tools they go on to shape us. Obviously, the writer falls into the determinist camp. So much so that he believes that the constant distractions that the internet presents us with is fundamentally changing the way we think and making it harder and harder for us to think deeply about anything.

Admittedly, there has been a lot of research done by cognitive load theorists that would tend to support this view – we only have so much mental capacity and constant interruptions would hardly seem the most obvious way to increase that capacity. However, my problem with this idea is that it follows a path that assumes learning is both difficult and slow. It takes a lot of effort to move information from short-term to long-term memory and this effort is undermined by how the internet makes us think or stops us thinking.

However, this view is, I think at atleast, convincingly criticized by Frank Smith The Book of Learning and Forgetting although it is something that I will need to think about more in the future.

WARNING: one of the questions it is important to ask of people how have ‘proven’ the difficulty of learning under certain circumstances is ‘what was being learnt’ – always be wary of tests of learning that involve nonsense syllables in any form. Admittedly, this book discusses tests that seem to have been much more meaningful, but learning and meaning go together and any ‘learning theory’ that involves no meaning probably isn’t testing learning.

Neverthless, the world has always been a distracting place and his ideal learning environment summed up in the book by Stevens’ The House Was Quiet and the World Was Calm (one of my all-time favourite poems) always was an ideal world rather than the standard learning environment prior to the invention of the internet.

It is possible that the internet provides too much distraction and that this level of distraction is bad for our learning. All the same, I don’t believe my reading has decreased since I have gone on-line and also don’t think I’ve become more distracted (although, I guess I would have to admit that my family have always told me that I’m the most absent-minded member of the family – so we are starting from a pretty low base). I really do agree with him when he says that we need to look at the negatives as well as the positives with the internet – and also agree that there are negatives – but I have to say that the positive of having the world at my fingertips means that the negatives would need to involve, oh, I don’t know, a sparrow dying with every mouse click or something for me to decide to give up the internet. If I am getting stupider due to my life online then it is happening in a really nice way – so slowly that I’m blissfully ignorant of my decline.

The other thing that amused me about this book was that I was surprised at how quickly things become nostalgic nowadays. He spends quite some time talking about computers he has known and owned. He talks about how excited he was when he bought is old Mac computers and how limited they were. How nice it used to be listening to your modem logging onto the internet and how you had to limit the amount of time you could use online in any one day so as not to use up your months allocation too quickly. But this trip down memory lane of the remarkably recent past really added nothing to the book overall.

So, although this was okay really this has been done better elsewhere.


مشاهده لینک اصلی
(Even more late breaking updates, below. Still havent read it yet, though.)

This book is mentioned in the thoughtful-if-long New York Times Magazine article Texts Without Context , which explores how technology is altering the way we absorb ideas, especially the written word, and how that change in subjectivity is setting us up for subtle but radical shifts in everything from political discourse to the rights of authors.

With respect to this book itself, Im skeptical.

That we will change as the Web becomes the dominant medium is without doubt. I am moderately confident that these changes will even include physical manifestation within our wetware: connections within our brains will probably have demonstrably different patterns.

What makes me skeptical isnt that there will be a change, but that these changes will be bad. The pejorative @Shallows@ in the title hints that Mr. Carr is quite pessimistic about this.

When the literacy and the mechanical press made the writing and reading of books commonplace, I can imagine that Mr. Carrs forerunner griping along similar lines.
After all, if people no longer are forced to memorize entire texts, they wont be able to immediately apply the wisdom within that text to their daily lives. And reading many texts instead of making a lifelong study of the most important few would mean their minds would become confused by the contradictory voices. These contradictions would diminish the objective authority of the best writings, diluting wisdom with the subjective impressions of too many other writers. Furthermore, without exercising the discipline of memorization, people would simply become more stupid! Without hearing the words, they wouldnt learn to listen for the nuances of elocution in the voices of others, and they would lose the guidance of their experienced elders. And all this reading would hurt their eyes! And books are simply unnatural!
Of course, we like to think weve done pretty well with the literary tradition. Has Mr. Carr struck a healthy balance, or is he focusing so severely on what he thinks we will lose that he cant see what we might gain?

So, if I get around to reading this, Ill be reading with a heavy dose of suspicion.

    •     •     •     •     •     •     •     •     •     •

A few tidbits since I wrote the above:

The @forerunner@ who did, indeed, gripe about the change from an oral culture to literacy was none other than Socrates. Among other aspects of the dialog Phaedrus, he gripes about how literacy is likely to be a bad thing. An extract from the ever-valuable Wikipedia:
Writing, examined separately but ultimately equated with philosophy and rhetoric, is somewhat deprecated; it is stated that writing can do little but remind those who already know, somewhat reminiscent of the archetypal Zen masters admonishment that @those who know, know@. Unlike dialectic and rhetoric, writing cannot be tailored to specific situations or students; the writer does not have the luxury of examining his readers soul in order to determine the proper way to persuade. When attacked it cannot defend itself, and is unable to answer questions or refute criticism. As such, the philosopher uses writing @for the sake of amusing himself@ and other similar things rather than for teaching others. A writer, then, is only a philosopher when he can himself argue that his writing is of little worth, among other requirements.
Annoyingly, I wasnt the only one to realize this. The New York Times finally got around to reviewing the book itself with Our Cluttered Minds , written by Jonah Lehrer, author of the enthusiastically reviewed PopCog book How We Decide as well as the excellent blog The Frontal Cortex . Lehrer led with the Phaedrus bit, darn it. Overall his review is mildly dismissive and largely consistent with my skepticism.

Also, I belatedly realized that Nicholas Carr wrote the inflammatory Is Google Making Us Stupid? for The Atlantic, and this book is an expansion of his ideas there.

Finally, the New York Times has repeatedly referred to Carrs book in their multi-piece examination of how the technology of the modern world is impinging on our cognition. The article Your Brain on Computers leads the assault, and provides links to various other articles and multimedia tests. The Test Your Focus @interactive feature@ is fun (I come down solidly in the @able to concentrate@ camp, thankfully).

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The Economist chimes in with their own mildly positive review at Fast forward: Fear of a fried future .
­

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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